Mobile Computing is a technology that allows transmission of data, voice and video via a computer or any other wireless enabled device without having to be connected to a fixed physical link. The main concept involves:
- Mobile Communication
The mobile communication in this case, refers to the infrastructure put in place to ensure that seamless and reliable communication goes on.
- Mobile Hardware
Mobile hardware includes mobile devices or device components that receive or access the service of mobility.
- Mobile Software
Mobile software is the actual program that run on the mobile hardware. It deals with the characteristics and requirements of mobile applications. This is the engine of that mobile device. In other terms, it is the operating system of that appliance.
Artificial Nural Network
Artificial Intelligence (A.I.) is the field of computer science focused on ensuring that the dream of the scientists becomes a reality. A.I. systems are currently capable of understanding speech, playing chess and performing household tasks. A.I. is set to play an important role in our lives. Researchers produce new products which duplicate intelligence, understand speech, beat the opponent chess player, and acting in complex conditions. The major problems of Artificial Intelligence include qualities such as knowledge, planning, learning, reasoning, communication, perception and capability to move and control the objects.
The aim of Artificial Intelligence is to develop the machines to perform the tasks in a better way than the humans. Another aim of Artificial Intelligence is to understand the actions whether it occurs in humans, machines or animals. As a result, Artificial Intelligence is gaining importance in science and engineering fields.
Data mining or knowledge discovery, is the computer-assisted process of digging through and analyzing enormous sets of data and then extracting the meaning of the data. Data mining tools predict behaviors and future trends, allowing businesses to make proactive, knowledge-driven decisions. Data mining tools can answer business questions that traditionally were too time consuming to resolve. They scour databases for hidden patterns, finding predictive information that experts may miss because it lies outside their expectations. Data mining derives its name from the similarities between searching for valuable information in a large database and mining a mountain for a vein of valuable ore. Both processes require either sifting through an immense amount of material, or intelligently probing it to find where the value resides.
Image processing is a method to convert an image into digital form and perform some operations on it, in order to get an enhanced image or to extract some useful information from it. It is a type of signal dispensation in which input is image, like video frame or photograph and output may be image or characteristics associated with that image. Usually Image Processing system includes treating images as two dimensional signals while applying already set signal processing methods to them. It is among rapidly growing technologies today, with its applications in various aspects of a business. Image Processing forms core research area within engineering and computer science disciplines too.
Purpose of Image processing
The purpose of image processing is divided into 5 groups. They are:
- Visualization - Observe the objects that are not visible.
- Image sharpening and restoration - To create a better image.
- Image retrieval - Seek for the image of interest.
- Measurement of pattern - Measures various objects in an image.
- Image Recognition - Distinguish the objects in an image.
Information security, sometimes shortened to InfoSec, is the practice of defending information from unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification, perusal, inspection, recording or destruction. It is a general term that can be used regardless of the form the data may take.
Two major aspects of information security are:
- IT security:
Sometimes referred to as computer security, Information Technology Security is information security applied to technology (most often some form of computer system). It is worthwhile to note that a computer does not necessarily mean a home desktop. A computer is any device with a processor and some memory (even a calculator). IT security specialists are almost always found in any major enterprise/establishment due to the nature and value of the data within larger businesses. They are responsible for keeping all of the technology within the company secure from malicious cyber-attacks that often attempt to breach into critical private information or gain control of the internal systems.
- Information assurance:
The act of ensuring that data is not lost when critical issues arise. These issues include but are not limited to; natural disasters, computer/server malfunction, physical theft, or any other instance where data has the potential of being lost. Since most information is stored on computers in our modern era, information assurance is typically dealt with by IT security specialists. One of the most common methods of providing information assurance is to have an off-site backup of the data in case one of the mentioned issues arise.
A specialized field in computer networking that involves securing a computer network infrastructure. Network security is typically handled by a network administrator or system administrator who implements the security policy,network software and hardware needed to protect a network and the resources accessed through the network from unauthorized access and also ensure that employees have adequate access to the network and resources to work.
A network security system typically relies on layers of protection and consists of multiple components including networking monitoring and security software in addition to hardware and appliances. All components work together to increase the overall security of the computer network.
Two major aspects of information security are:
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Information Technology Laboratory,provides the most comprehensive definition of cloud computing thus far offered. Cloud computing is a payper-use model for enabling available, convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurablecomputing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, services) that can be rapidly provisioned andreleased with minimal management effort or service provider interaction. This cloud model promotesavailability and comprises five key characteristics
On-demand self-service. A consumer can unilaterally provision computing capabilities, such as server timeand network storage, as needed without requiring human interaction with each services provider.
Ubiquitous network access. Capabilities are available over the network and accessed through standardmechanisms that promote use by heterogeneous thin or thick client platforms (e.g., mobile phones,laptops, andPDAs).
Location-independent resource pooling. The provider's computing resources are pooled to serve allconsumers using a multitenant model, with different physical and virtual resources dynamically assigned andreassigned according to consumer demand.
Rapid elasticity. Capabilities can be rapidly and elastically provisioned to quickly scale up, and rapidlyreleased to quickly scale down.
Pay per use. Capabilities are charged using a metered, fee-for-service, or advertising-based billing model topromote optimization of resource use.
A computer network (or data network) is a telecommunications network that allows computers to exchange data. The physical connection between networked computing devices is established using either cable media or wireless media. The best-known computer network is the Internet.
Network devices that originate, route and terminate the data are called network nodes. Nodes can include hosts such as servers and personal computers, as well as networking hardware. Two devices are said to be networked when a process in one device is able to exchange information with a process in another device.
Computer networks support applications such as access to the World Wide Web, shared use of application and storage servers, printers, and fax machines, and use of email and instant messaging applications. The remainder of this article discusses local area network technologies and classifies them according to the following characteristics: the physical media used to transmit signals, the communications protocols used to organize network traffic, along with the network's size, its topology and its organizational intent.
Parallel and distributed system
Both parallel and distributed systems can be defined as a collection of processing elements that communicate and cooperate to achieve a common goal. Advances in processor technology have resulted in today's computer systems using parallelism at all levels: within each CPU by executing multiple instructions from the same thread of control simultaneously (superscalar architectures/instruction-level parallelism); by executing multiple instructions from different threads of control simultaneously (simultaneous multithreading); by introducing multiple cores in a single chip (chip multiprocessors); by using multiple chips to form multiprocessors; or via multiple networked nodes to form a cluster; making parallel systems increasingly ubiquitous. Simultaneously, advances in networking technology have created an explosion of distributed applications, making distributed computing an inherent fabric in our day-to-day lives. This course will focus on the principles of parallel and distributed systems and the implementation and performance issues associated with them. We will examine programming models/interfaces to parallel and distributed computing, inter process communication, synchronization and consistency models, fault tolerance and reliability, distributed process management, parallel machine architectures, parallel program optimization, and the interaction of the compiler, run-time, and machine architecture.